Spanish Past Participles

Overview

A regular Past Participle is a verb form that is usually used with Perfect Tenses. In English, the Past Participle is formed by either adding “-ed” or “-en” to the infinitive form, for example, the Past Participle of the verb “to walk” is “walked”. More times than not, however, this just looks like the Simple Past Tense. In order to form the past participle in Spanish, all you have to do is drop the ending (-ar-er or -ir) from the Infinitive Verb and then add either -ado (if the ending of the verb was -ar) or -ido (if the ending of the verb was either -er or -ir).

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A past participle is a very useful verb form that can be used as an adjective or as part of a perfect tense when is used in conjunction with the verb “Haber”

Regular Past Participle Spanish forms:

To form the past participle of a verb, you drop the infinitive ending (ar-er-ir) and add “ado” to the stem of “ar” verbs, and “ido,” to verbs ending in “er-ir.” This is the equivalent of adding “ed,” to many verbs in English.

How to form past participle form with regular verbs:

ar- verb – hablar – habl – hablado  

er -verb – Tener – Ten – Tenido

Many verbs that are irregular have past participles, and on the table below are a few of them:

           Infinitive                                Past Participle                             English

         abrirabiertoopened
         decirdichosaid
         escribirescritowritten
         hacerhechodone
         vervistoseen

There are quite a few perfect tenses in Spanish and they all use past participles.

Haber + past participle

These examples show the past participle being used in the present perfect and the future perfect: H H ¿

¿Has viajado mucho a Madrid?

Have you traveled a lot to Madrid?

Past participles are commonly used as adjectives in Spanish. When this is the case, they must agree in number and gender to the nouns they modify.

Me encantan los huevos revueltos

I love scramble eggs.

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Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

The CEFR is an international standard used to describe language ability. Here are specific details of the CEFR for this topic.

General Explanation:
Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.
Specific Capabilities at this Level
Writing:
I can write short, simple notes and messages relating to matters in areas of immediate needs. I can write a very simple personal letter, for example thanking someone for something.
Spoken Production:
I can use a series of phrases and sentences to describe in simple terms my family and other people, living conditions, my educational background and my present or most recent job.
Spoken Interaction:
I can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar topics and activities. I can handle very short social exchanges, even though I can’t usually understand enough to keep the conversation going myself.
Reading:
I can read very short, simple texts. I can find specific, predictable information in simple everyday material such as advertisements, prospectuses, menus and timetables and I can understand short simple personal letters.
Listening:
I can understand phrases and the highest frequency vocabulary related to areas of most immediate personal relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local area, employment). I can catch the main point in short, clear, simple messages and announcements.