Spanish Past Participles as Adjectives


A regular Past Participle is a verb form that is usually used with Perfect Tenses. In English, the Past Participle is formed by either adding “-ed” or “-en” to the infinitive form, for example, the Past Participle of the verb “to walk” is “walked”.

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Past participles can be used as adjectives by following a few steps. You will look at your infinitive first, then you will drop the endings which are: “ar, er, ir, after dropping these endings, you add “ado or ido.” When you change a past participle into an adjective, it has to agree in number and gender with the noun.

For irregular verbs ending in er, ir, you drop the “er, ir,: and add “ido.”

El juguete está roto. “roto” is your adjective that is in singular and masculine since “juguete,” is male.

The toy is broken

La ventana está rota. Here “rota,” is feminine and sigular because ventana is feminine and there is only one.

The window is broken

Regular verbs end in “ar-er-ir,” and you make it into an adjective by dropping the “ar-er-ir,” and adding “ado.”

Es tradición estar sentados a la mesa juntos toda la familia.

It is tradition to seat at the table, together all the family.

Regular Past Participles In Spanish


Verb EndingsVerbo InfinitivoPasado ParticipioInfinitive VerbPast Participle
-AR = ADO(S) / ADA(S)JugarJugadoTo playPlayed
-IR = IDO(S) / IDA(S)VivirVividoTo liveLived
-ER = IDO(S) / IDA(S)CreerCreídoTo believeBelieved

In some cases with a few verbs that end in “ir, er” such as leer, oir, you will drop the “er, ir,” and add “yendo.”

Leer – leyendo

Oir – Oyendo

Several Spanish verbs have irregular past participles: Some are: abrir – abierto; decir-dicho, hacer-hecho. There are several perfect tenses. They use the formula Haber + Past Participle. Example: Roberto ha viajado a Londres. Robert has traveled to London.

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Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

The CEFR is an international standard used to describe language ability. Here are specific details of the CEFR for this topic.

General Explanation:
Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.
Specific Capabilities at this Level
I can write short, simple notes and messages relating to matters in areas of immediate needs. I can write a very simple personal letter, for example thanking someone for something.
Spoken Production:
I can use a series of phrases and sentences to describe in simple terms my family and other people, living conditions, my educational background and my present or most recent job.
Spoken Interaction:
I can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar topics and activities. I can handle very short social exchanges, even though I can’t usually understand enough to keep the conversation going myself.
I can read very short, simple texts. I can find specific, predictable information in simple everyday material such as advertisements, prospectuses, menus and timetables and I can understand short simple personal letters.
I can understand phrases and the highest frequency vocabulary related to areas of most immediate personal relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local area, employment). I can catch the main point in short, clear, simple messages and announcements.