German Plural Formation


For English speakers, the plural in German is difficult and sometimes confusing. We are happy to just add a simple "–s". In German it’s much more complicated.

Crocus, plural crocuses or croci is a genus of flowering plants in the iris family. A bunch of

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There are several ways to form the plurals of nouns in German. The grammatical gender for singular nouns is either “der” (masculine), “die” (feminine) or “das” (neutral). 
In the plural, all nouns are die (feminine), regardless of what their grammatical gender is as a singular noun, for example: der Hund (the dog) – die Hunde (the dogs) Below is a list of rules. Note: there are always exceptions

1. 90% of all singular feminine nouns end on “-n” (if the singular noun ends on “-e”), or “-en”   
Examples: die Frau  – die Frauen (the woman/women)
                        die Flasche  – die Flaschen (the bottle/bottles) 

2. Most masculine nouns that end on “-er/-en/-el” have no ending, but many take Umlauts:
        Examples: der Apfel  – die Äpfel (the apple/apples)
                          der Vogel  – die Vögel (the bird/birds)

3. Most masculine nouns without the endings  “-er/-en/-el”, take the ending “-e” + Umlaut:
       Examples: der Kopf (the head) – die Köpfe (the head/heads)
                         der Koch (the chef)  – die Köche (the chef/chefs)
4. Most neutral nouns that end on “-er, -en, -el, -chen, -lein”  have no ending:

       Examples: das Brötchen- die Brötchen (the bun/buns)
                         das Mädchen- die Mädchen (the girl/girls)
                         das Kindlein – die Kindlein (the small child/children)

5. Neutral nouns that do not end on  “-er, -en, -el, -chen, -lein” usually add “-e”

       Examples:  das Brot – die Brote
                          das Angebot – die Angebote
                          das Geschäft – die Geschäfte

6. Loanwords and abbreviations simply add an “s”, regardless of gender:

        Examples: das Foto – die Fotos (the photo/photos)                                                                               die CD – die CDs (the CD/CDs
                         das Croissant  – die Croissants (the croissant/croissants)                                                   der BMW – die BMWs

7. One syllable masculine and feminine nouns often add “-e” and an umlaut:
         Examples: der Kopf – die Köpfe (the head/heads)
                           die Nacht – die Nächte (the night/nights)

8. Nouns ending on -a, -i, or -o simply add an “s”:
         Examples: das Auto- die Autos (the car/cars)
                           das Klo- die Klos (the washroom/washrooms)
                           der Opa – die Opas (the grandpa/grandpas)


Forming Plurals of Gendered Nouns (e.g. Professions)

The plural forms of nouns for professions follow a particular pattern. Many masculine forms of professions end in ‘er,’ and their female counterparts add ‘in’ and sometimes an umlaut over the stem vowel (if it is an ‘a,’ ‘o,’ or ‘u’). The feminine plural adds ‘nen’ to the feminine ‘in’ ending, whereas the masculine singular and plural endings (‘er’) are usually the same (NOTE: professions ending in ‘ist,’ ‘ent,’ or ‘ant’ add ‘en’). When there is a mix of feminine and masculine, the plural is the plural masculine form.
This is illustrated in the table below:

professions jpg

Exception: “the employee”
der Angestellte   /   die Angestellten   /   die Angestellte   /   die Angestellten

Die Schule hat vier Lehrer und sieben Lehrerinnen. 
The school has four teachers (m) and seven teachers (f).

Alle Busfahrer fahren abends den Bus ins Busdepot.
All bus drivers (m/f)* drive the bus to the station in the evenings.

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Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

The CEFR is an international standard used to describe language ability. Here are specific details of the CEFR for this topic.

General Explanation:

Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type. Can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and things he/she has. Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help.

Specific Capabilities at this Level

I can write a short, simple postcard, for example sending holiday greetings. I can fill in forms with personal details, for example entering my name, nationality and address on a hotel registration form.
Spoken Production:
I can use simple phrases and sentences to describe where I live and people I know.
Spoken Interaction:
I can interact in a simple way provided the other person is prepared to repeat or rephrase things at a slower rate of speech and help me formulate what I’m trying to say. I can ask and answer simple questions in areas of immediate need or on very familiar topics.
I can understand familiar names, words and very simple sentences, for example on notices and posters or in catalogues.
I can recognize familiar words and very basic phrases concerning myself, my family and immediate concrete surroundings when people speak slowly and clearly.