The French Pronoun Y
The adverbial pronoun y can replace a place or the object of the preposition à. Y is most commonly equivalent to "there," but may also be translated by a preposition plus "it."
Y replaces or refers back to an adverb phrase of place or of location. In its simplest form, it means just there (in the meaning of in that place) It can also mean in something, on something, under something, beside something, etc.
Y replaces an adverb phrase of direction or of movement towards a designated place. It often replaces or refers back to the French preposition à
It can therefore mean to a place, towards a place, towards a goal, etc. - both litterally and figuratively.
Y is very commonly found in the expression il y a (and its variations in other tenses, such as il y avait). Here it has no real meaning, but corresponds to the English There is or there are. Note that unlike there is/ there are, Il y a is only used in the singular
Yes, it’s true… the letter “y” is actually a word in French! It’s pronounced “E,” and it’s an adverbial pronoun. It most often represents/replaces a place and can be translated into English as the word “there.” This can be a literal place that someone can go to (like a city or building) or a place that you’re making reference to (in front of something or on another object). Like the other pronouns we’ve been learning, it will be placed before the conjugated verb in the sentence. That means in the passé composé, it will precede the auxiliary verb. In a tense like the futur proche where there are two verbs (one conjugated and one infinitive), it will be placed between the two or precede the infinitive.
Look for one of the following French prepositions in your sentences to help you identify a place that can be replaced with the pronoun, y:
Preposition → Example
*à → à la fromagerie
en → en France
chez → chez moi
dans → dans la pâtisserie
devant → devant la scène
derrière → derrière le mur
sous → sous l’escalier
sur → sur l’affiche
*Remember that à can be added to definite articles (le/la/les) and take on different forms. So, remember that this preposition can look like au, à la, à l’ or aux in a sentence.
J’habite à Charleston. → J’y habite.
Nous restons chez vous. → Nous y restons.
Élise était devant la porte quand je l’ai fermé. → Élise y était quand je l’ai fermé.
Êtes-vous allés au concert ? → Y êtes-vous allés?
An additional case:
An additional scenario where you can use y as a pronoun is to replace a direct object following the verbs that are accompanied by the preposition à. Think back to the previous module where you learned how to use indirect object pronouns. We only discussed using the indirect object pronouns with people. That’s because you can use y to replace ideas that are expressed in this format.
Look at these two specific examples:
- Je pense à Alice quand je suis triste. → Je pense à elle quand je suis triste.
- Je pense à ma religion quand je suis triste. → J’y pense quand je suis triste.
In these examples, the pronoun y is replacing “à la religion” because it’s more of an abstract concept/idea rather than a specific person.
The following list shows common verbs where you could use the pronoun y to replace the object that follow a verb with the preposition à:
faire attention à
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