French Reflexive Verbs (present tense)

Overview

Knowing the pronominal verbs in the present tense in French is very important. Pronominal verbs have a reflexive pronoun. In the infinitive, the reflexive pronoun is " se " or " s’ " before a vowel (a, e, i, o, u, y). All conjugated verbs, with the exception of the imperative form, require a subject pronoun.  There are a few kinds of French pronominal verbs. But in general, we can say the action and, thus construction, of the pronominal verb is reflexive, reciprocal or idiomatic.  Let's break this down.

Showering Woman

A pronominal verb is a verb that “relates to a pronoun.” There are three types of pronominal verbs: reflexive, reciprocal, and idiomatic. In this module, we will learn the fundamentals/basics of pronominal verbs in French. Pronominal verbs are identifiable in their infinitive (unconjugated) state; before their infinitive comes se or s’ if the verb begins with a vowel. This indicates that a reflexive pronoun must accompany the verb when it is conjugated and agree with the subject of the sentence. The list below shows the reflexive pronoun that is paired with each subject when a pronominal verb is being conjugated.

SubjectReflexive Pronoun
Jeme
Tute
Il/Elle/Onse
*Nousnous
*Vousvous
Ils/Ellesse

*There is no typo in the chart. The reflexive pronouns for the first and second person plural forms happen to be the same as the subject pronouns.

The general rule for conjugating any of the three pronominal verb types is as follows:

Subject + reflexive pronoun + pronominal verb conjugated for subject

Les Verbes Réfléchis (Reflexive Verbs)

Reflexive verbs are the most common pronominal verbs. These verbs indicated that the subject of the sentence is doing an action to itself. These verbs can also stand alone without the reflexive pronoun to indicate the subject is doing the action to someone else. Take a look at these examples.

  • Je me lave. → I wash myself.

Je lave la voiture. → I wash the car.

  • Nous nous réveillons. → We wake ourselves up.

Nous réveillons notre fille. → We wake up our daughter.

The first sentence in these two examples follows the formula above. They include the reflective pronouns se and nous to indicate the action of the verb is being done by the subjects Je and Nous respectively.

Below is a list of common French reflexive verbs. You can review several of these verbs in the Quizlet set of this module.

se baigner = to bathe, swim

   se brosser (les cheveux, les dents) = to brush (one’s hair, one’s teeth)

   se casser (la jambe, le bras) = to break (one’s leg, one’s arm)

   se coiffer = to fix one’s hair

   se coucher = to go to bed

   se dépêcher = to hurry

   se déshabiller = to get undressed

se doucher = to take a shower

s’énerver = to get annoyed

s’enrhumer = to catch a cold

se fâcher = to get angry

s’habiller = to get dressed

   s’imaginer = to imagine

s’intéresser à = to be interested in

   se laver (les mains, la figure) = to wash (one’s hands, one’s face)

   se lever = to get up

se maquiller = to put on makeup

   se marier (avec) = to get married (to)

se peigner = to comb one’s hair

se promener = to take a walk

se raser = to shave

se regarder = to look at oneself

   se reposer = to rest

   se réveiller = to wake up

   se souvenir de = to remember

Les Verbes Reciproques (Reciprocal Verbs)

Just like reflexive verbs show that an action is being done by the subject to the subject, reciprocal verbs show that an action is being carried out between two subjects. Though there is a different set of pronominal verbs from the list you reviewed above, reciprocal verbs use the same general pronominal verb formula. Review these examples. Note how the meaning of the sentence changes with an identical formula.

  • Vous vous parlez à la réunion. → You talk to each other at the meeting.
  • Ils se regardent. → They look at each other.

Sometimes telling the difference between reflexive and reciprocal verbs can be done by thinking logically through the translations. Other times, the translations aren’t as obvious and they depend on the situational context of the sentence. For example, the sentences above are reciprocal verb examples. However, without context, one could argue they mean “You are talking to yourself/yourselves” and “They are looking at themselves.” Understanding context in French is extremely useful for this aspect of grammar.

Below is a list of common French reciprocal verbs.

s’adorer = to adore (one another)

s’aimer = to love each other

s’apercevoir = to see each other

   se comprendre = to understand each other

   se détester = to hate each other

   se dire = to tell each other

s’embrasser = to kiss each other

   se parler = to talk to each other

   se promettre = to promise each other

se quitter = to leave each other

se regarder = to look at each other

   se rencontrer = to meet each other

se sourire = to smile at each other

se téléphoner = to call each other

se voir = to see each other

Les Verbes Idiomatiques (Idiomatic Verbs)

Idiomatic verbs are verbs that have a completely different meaning with a reflexive pronoun than when they stand alone without one. French has a lot of them. Essentially, the reflexive pronoun is critical to the overall meaning of the sentence. Just like reflexive and reciprocal verbs, however, they follow the same general pronominal verb formula. In this module, we are not going to focus much on idiomatic verbs, as they are generally challenging for new learners to understand and remember.

  • Tu te demandes si tu as gagné le jeu.→ You are wondering if you won the game.
  • Elle s’ entend avec les autres. → She gets along with the others.

We know that demander means “to ask for” and entendre means “to hear.” The reflexive verbs te and se that accompany these verbs change the meaning and context of each sentence.

Below is a list of common French idiomatic pronominal verbs. The definitions in parenthesis are the definitions of the verbs without the reflexive pronoun.

s’en aller = to go away   (to go)

s’amuser = to have a good time (to amuse)

   s’appeler = to be named (to call)

   s’attendre (à) = to expect (to wait for)

se demander = to wonder (to ask)

   se dépêcher = to hurry (to send quickly)

   s’endormir = to fall asleep (to put to sleep)

s’ennuyer = to be bored (to bother)

   s’entendre = to get along (to hear)

   s’habituer à = to get used to (to get in the habit of)

   s’inquiéter = to worry (to alarm)

s’installer = to settle in (to a home) (to install)

se mettre à = to begin to (to place, put)

se rendre compte de = to realize (to account for)

   se réunir = to meet, get together (to gather, collect)

se servir = to use, make use of (to serve)

   se tromper = to be mistaken (to deceive)

Negating Pronominal Verbs

To negate a sentence with a pronominal verb, you follow this general pattern:

Subject + ne + reflexive pronoun + pronominal verb conjugated for subject + pas

The reflexive verb becomes a part of the verb which is why the ne and pas sandwich them together. The ne and pas could also be substituted by any of the other negative expression combinations that we learned thus far.

Elle ne se maquille jamais le matin. → She never puts makeup on [herself] in the mornings.

Highlighted Author:

France, Paris, Smiling woman standing on a bridge with the Eiffel tower in the background
Smiling young african american businessman writing in diary and using laptop in creative office

Private Classes

Meet one or more times weekly with a dedicated French instructor online at a pace and schedule that custom fits your busy life.

Group of cheerful young women studying together

Group Courses

Our group French courses meet twice a week for 1-hour classes. Learn French with other motivated students. Best option for French CEFR certification.
 
Inspirational International Women's Day Quotes for 2023

Self-Study

Do you like to study on your own when it’s convenient for you? Buy helpful charts, vocabulary lists, and courses.

Additional Topics

People buying vegetables at the farmers market
French The Pronoun "en"

The adverbial pronoun en can replace a quantity, a place, or the object of the preposition de. This little word has many possible translations: any, one, some, about it / them, of it / them.

Adult African American father next to daughter plays the synthesizer
The French Pronoun Y

Y replaces or refers back to an adverb phrase of place or of location. In its simplest form, it means just there (in the meaning of in that place) It can also mean in something, on something, under something, beside something, etc.

Who is it
French Relative Pronouns Qui vs Que

In French, direct object pronouns are used for verbs which aren’t followed by prepositions: Me (me), te (you), nous (us), vous (you), le (him or it), la (her or it), les (them). For example, Je vois le garçon. Je le vois. (I see the boy. I see him).

Show More
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

The CEFR is an international standard used to describe language ability. Here are specific details of the CEFR for this topic.

General Explanation:
Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.
Specific Capabilities at this Level
Writing:
I can write short, simple notes and messages relating to matters in areas of immediate needs. I can write a very simple personal letter, for example thanking someone for something.
Spoken Production:
I can use a series of phrases and sentences to describe in simple terms my family and other people, living conditions, my educational background and my present or most recent job.
Spoken Interaction:
I can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar topics and activities. I can handle very short social exchanges, even though I can’t usually understand enough to keep the conversation going myself.
Reading:
I can read very short, simple texts. I can find specific, predictable information in simple everyday material such as advertisements, prospectuses, menus and timetables and I can understand short simple personal letters.
Listening:
I can understand phrases and the highest frequency vocabulary related to areas of most immediate personal relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local area, employment). I can catch the main point in short, clear, simple messages and announcements.