English Review of Gerunds and Infinitives
This module offers a review of gerunds (verbs ending in "ing") and infinitives (e.g. to play, to see, to sleep) for learners who have previously learned about this grammar in a previous English course.
Some verbs require the use of the preposition “to”, when followed by another verb. The second very will be in the infinitive.
I hate to bother you. (Not: I hate bother you)
If you decide to apply for the job, then give me a call. (Not: If you decide apply, ….)
She refuses to answer the question. (Not: She refuses answer the question).
Other verbs that are commonly followed by “to + infinitive verb” are: choose (to), promise (to), intend (to), hope (to), expect (to), plan (to), seem (to),
Note: Using any of these words does not automatically require the use of “to + infinitive verb”. We do not use “to” when there is no other verb in the sentence.
I hate broccoli. (Not: I hate to broccoli.)
She promised me. (Not: She promised to me.)
He expected them. (Not: He expected to them.)
A gerund is the -ing form of a verb used as a noun.
Verbs that are commonly followed by a gerund are: detest, enjoy, avoid, miss, keep, remember, keep, consider, suggest.
I hate being interrupted. (Not: I hate to be interrupted.)
I enjoy gardening. (Not: I enjoy to garden.) “gardening” could also be viewed as a noun.
She denies calling him that night. (Not: She denies to call him that night.)
I am considering leaving my current job. (Not: I consider to leave.)
I keep thinking it’s Wednesday. (Not: I keep to think…)
I don’t remember leaving my wallet in my car. (Not: I don’t remember to leave…)
Note: Not every verb ending with -ing is a gerund.
I enjoy baking. (Gerund)
I am baking. (Present participle, not gerund!)
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Common European Framework of Reference for Languages
The CEFR is an international standard used to describe language ability. Here are specific details of the CEFR for this topic.