Spanish Past Participles as Adjectives

    Beginner+ Spanish - Level A2


    A regular Past Participle is a verb form that is usually used with Perfect Tenses. In English, the Past Participle is formed by either adding “-ed” or “-en” to the infinitive form, for example, the Past Participle of the verb “to walk” is “walked”. 


    Spanish-Past Participles

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    Spanish A2

    Past Participle with Adjectives

    Past participles can be used as adjectives by following a few steps. You will look at your infinitive first, then you will drop the endings which are: “ar, er, ir, after dropping these endings, you add “ado or ido.” When you change a past participle into an adjective, it has to agree in number and gender with the noun.

    For irregular verbs ending in er, ir, you drop the “er, ir,: and add “ido.”

    El juguete está roto. “roto” is your adjective that is in singular and masculine since “juguete,” is male.

    The toy is broken

    La ventana está rota. Here “rota,” is feminine and sigular because ventana is feminine and there is only one.

    The window is broken

    Regular verbs end in “ar-er-ir,” and you make it into an adjective by dropping the “ar-er-ir,” and adding “ado.”

    Es tradición estar sentados a la mesa juntos toda la familia.

    It is tradition to seat at the table, together all the family.


    Regular Past Participles In Spanish


    Verb Endings

    Verbo Infinitivo

    Pasado Participio

    Infinitive Verb

    Past Participle

    -AR = ADO(S) / ADA(S)



    To play


    -IR = IDO(S) / IDA(S)



    To live


    -ER = IDO(S) / IDA(S)



    To believe



    In some cases with a few verbs that end in “ir, er" such as leer, oir, you will drop the “er, ir,” and add “yendo.”

    Leer – leyendo

    Oir - Oyendo

    Several Spanish verbs have irregular past participles: Some are: abrir – abierto; decir-dicho, hacer-hecho. There are several perfect tenses. They use the formula Haber + Past Participle. Example: Roberto ha viajado a Londres. Robert has traveled to London.                                              

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