Course Content
German Gender of Nouns
All German nouns are one of three genders: masculine, feminine or neutral. When you’re learning German, it’s important to remember that the word, not the thing, has a gender. Although they don’t always make sense, they are something you have to learn. That’s because in German, the gender of a noun is part of its identity. If you say or write a German word without the article that dictates gender, you won’t be using the noun correctly.
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German Nominative
In German the nominative is often referred to as the “who-case” (“der Werfall”) , because you can use the question words “who ” or “ what ” to find out what the subject of the sentence is.
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German Adjectives
German has all the same adjective concepts that English does, yes … but how adjectives are used is very different, mainly because of tricky little adjective endings (i.e. declensions) you frequently have to use as part of the overarching German Case System.Many students find adjective endings (and how they so often impact adjective-usage) to be the most difficult aspect of German to master.
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German Personal Pronouns
German personal pronouns (ich, sie, er, es, du, wir, and more) work in much the same way as their English equivalents (I, she, he, it, you, we, etc.). When you study verbs, you should already understand pronouns well. They are a key element of most sentences that you should memorize and know by heart.
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The Future Simple Tense (Futur I)
The German future tense (Futur I) is mostly used to express assumptions about the present or future in German. We can also use this tense to express future intentions, although, in spoken German, it is more common to use the present tense for this. We can translate the future tense with the English tenses: simple present or future with will or going to.
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German Regular Verbs
The present tense is one of two verb tenses in German that consist of finite forms. This means that the verb itself is inflected to provide all of the grammatical information necessary to understand its role in the sentence.The German present tense is usually formed by dropping the –en or –n from the infinitive and adding personal endings (-e, -(e)st, (e)t, –en, -(e)t, –en) to the remaining infinitive stem.
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German Plural Formation
A plural noun expresses that there is more than one person, object, idea etc. To form plural nouns in German, we can add -n/-en, -e, -r/-er, or -s to the end of the noun. The rules for plural noun formation in German grammar are listed below.
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German Accusative Case and Haben
You use the "Akkusativ", when you want to describe what is happening to a person or a thing. This person or thing is the grammatical object.
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German Word Order
English tends to rely mostly on word order to indicate the grammatical function of a word or phrase. German relies more on inflections to show function. Endings, such as those indicating the nominative, accusative, dative, and genitive cases in three different genders, allow for some greater flexibility in clause construction.
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German Definite Articles
A definite article (der Definitartikel) is that tiny word in English we refer to as "the." In German, we have three: der, die, das. As in English, they are also placed before the noun (or their modifying adjectives). In German, however, each of the definite articles has a gender.
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German Indefinite Articles
In German there are several varieties of indefinite articles, which change depending on the gender of the noun being modified, whether the noun is singular or plural, and the case of the noun in the sentence.
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German Negation
Negation or negative sentences in German grammar are formed with the words nicht (not) and kein (no/none). The tricky part is understanding when to use nicht and when to use kein and where to put them in a sentence. Learn about the word order of negative sentences in German and when to use nicht or kein.
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German Modal Verbs
Modal verbs are a special class of verbs. You will most likely always use and find them in company with another verb. The six modal verbs in German are: dürfen, können, mögen, müssen, sollen, wollen.
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German Separable Prefix Verbs
Separable prefixes offer a large set of possibilities for the formation of new verbs. In general, these elements provide either a more precise, or a significantly different meaning of the modified verb. Thus they serve as the "verb complement". In German, most, but not all, separable prefixes are derived from prepositions and retain much of the meaning that they had in that form.
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German Coordinating Conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions in German are words that can be used to connect other words, phrases or clauses without affecting the word order of the sentence. These conjunctions are: und, oder, aber, denn, beziehungsweise, sondern, doch, jedoch, and allein.
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German Possessive
Possessive pronouns indicate possession. There are dependent and independent possessive pronouns in German grammar, both types must agree with their noun in case, gender and number.
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German-Present Perfect of Regular Verbs
The English present perfect tense is used to refer to an event that happened in the past but continues (or at least might continue) in the present. For example, the sentence “I have lived in Charleston, South Carolina for six years” suggests that you might still be living in Charleston. Unlike English, das Perfekt doesn’t signify an ongoing event. Instead, it refers to a past event or action which has been completed. It’s also the past tense that’s most commonly used in German conversations, so you need to understand it if you want great speaking skills!
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German Present Perfect-Irregular Verbs
In German, there are about 150 strong verbs. The vowel, which normally changes in the verb, is called “Ablaut”. There are three typical patterns of “Ablaut” changes: e – i – a: “gehen – ging – gegangen” a – u – a: “fahren – fuhr – gefahren” i – a – u: “finden – fand – gefunden”
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German Present Perfect-Mixed Verbs
In German, weak verbs follow a very particular pattern of conjugation. In addition to strong – or irregular – verbs, there is a third category of verbs: irregular weak verbs. The list of these mixed German verbs is: brennen, bringen, denken, kennen, nennen, rennen, senden, wenden and wissen.
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German Dative Case
The German dative case is used to indicate the indirect object of a sentence. It answers the question: To or for whom?
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German Two-Way Prepositions
Most German prepositions are always followed by the same case, but two-way prepositions are prepositions that can take either the accusative or dative case.There are nine of these two-way prepositions:an auf hinter neben in über unter vor zwischen
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German Dative Case Prepositions
In English, prepositions take the objective case (object of the preposition) and all prepositions take the same case. In German there are several grouping that are followed by a certain German case. Here is a list of German dative prepositions (nouns are always followed by the dative case): aus außer bei mit nach seit von zu gegenüber
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German Conditionals
In German, subjunctive forms are used much more frequently than in English, to express uncertainty, speculation or doubt.
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German Dative Verbs
The German dative case is used to indicate the indirect object of a sentence. It’s also used after certain verbs and prepositions.
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German Simple Past Tense
In German, the simple past is referred to as Präteritum. In English, the simple past is often used to discuss past events that have a definite timeframe, referring to when something happened. In German, it can be used the same way, though it’s generally used more in writing vs regular conversation.
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German Imperative
The German imperative is a form of the verb used when giving orders and instructions, for example, Please sit down!
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German Comparative
A comparative adjective in English is one with -er added to it or more or less in front of it, that is used to compare people or things. (slower, more beautiful) In German, to say that something is easier, more expensive and so on, you add -er to the simple form of most adjectives.
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German Temporal Prepositions
Prepositions of time or temporal prepositions show the relationship of these things to time. Prepositions of time correspond to the questions “When/how long?”
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German Present Perfect-Separable Prefix Verbs
Separable prefixes offer a large set of possibilities for the formation of new verbs. In general, these elements provide either a more precise, or a significantly different meaning of the modified verb. Thus they serve as the "verb complement". In German, most, but not all, separable prefixes are derived from prepositions and retain much of the meaning that they had in that form.
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German Irregular Verbs
In German, there are about 150 strong verbs. The vowel, which normally changes in the verb, is called “Ablaut”. There are three typical patterns of “Ablaut” changes: e – i – a: “gehen – ging – gegangen” a – u – a: “fahren – fuhr – gefahren” i – a – u: “finden – fand – gefunden”
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German Question Words
In order to ask basic questions in German, you’ll need to memorize some new vocabulary. Here are thirteen German question words you can use in everyday conversation.
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Basic German Grammar Topics
    About Lesson
    Smiling couple enjoying time at the restaurant, taking selfies and eating outside,

    Es gibt kein schlechtes Wetter, es gibt nur falsche Kleidung.

    Florian und Mirko unterhalten sich. Über das Wetter kann man nicht streiten. Aber Mirko und Florian sind anderer Meinung.

    Florian: Ich mag Sommer nicht. Da ist es viel zu heiss! 

    Mirko: Im Sommer kann man schwimmen gehen! Das kann man im Winter nicht!

    Florian: Im Winter kann man snowboarden. Das kann man im Sommer nicht!

    Mirko: Winter ist viel zu kalt. Mann kann nicht draussen Sport machen, und es wird viel zu früh dunkel!

    Florian: Stell dir vor: Die Berge. Schnee. Ein heisser Glühwein! Die Piste runtersausen auf einem Snowboard. 

    Mirko: Ich habe kein Snowboard. Und ich mag Schnee nicht. Stell dir vor: Ein See. Kühles Wasser. Ein Erdbeereis. Ein spannendes Buch! 

    Florian: Mann kann auch im Winter lesen und ein Eis essen?

    Mirko: Aber nicht draussen!

    Florian: Natürlich draussen! Du musst dich halt fest anziehen. Es gibt kein schlechtes Wetter, es gibt nur falsche Kleidung. 

    Vocabulary:
    das Wetter – the weather
    sich unterhalten – to have a conversation (careful: reflexive verb!)
    der Sommer  – the summer
    der Winter – the winter
    draussen – outside, outdoors
    dunkel  – dark
    früh – early
    zu – here: too
    der Berg(e) – the mountain
    der Schnee – the snow
    schneien – to snow
    der Glühwein(e) – the mulled wine
    die Piste(n) – the (skiing) slope
    runtersausen – to whiz down
    der See(n)  – the lake
    kühl – cool
    das Eis – the ice, ice cream
    spannend – suspenseful 
    anziehen – to get dressed
    fest anziehen – dress warmly 
    Es gibt – there is/are
    falsch – wrong 

    Questions: 1. When was “kein/e” used for negation?
    2. When was “nicht” used? 
    3. What does Florian like and why?
    4. What does Mirko like and why?
    5. Why does Mirko dislike Winter? 

    Answers: 
    1. “Ich habe kein Snowboard” ( I have no snowboard). “Es gibt kein schlechtes Wetter” (There is no [such thing as] bad weather.)
    2. “… kann man nicht streiten” (cannot argue about), “Ich mag Sommer nicht. (I don’t like summer), “Das kann man im Winter nicht.” (One cannot do that in Winter.), “Mann kann nicht draussen Sport machen.” (One cannot do Sports outside/outdoors.) “Und ich mag Schnee nicht.” (And I don’t like snow.), “Aber nicht draussen.” (But not outside),